We visit the Cathedral Museum ( Museo Cathedral de Santiago).
It is time to think about the history of the St. James story that led to building his Cathedral in Santiago.
I read Chapter 16 of the Tao te Ching.
“Empty your mind of all thoughts.
Let your heart be at peace.”
In the Cathedral Museum, we see a video which shows the Portico de la Gloria – the main entrance to the cathedral (currently closed for repairs). The video portrays the need for restoration. The video briefly shows the 24 elders of the Apocalyse — which include the 12 apostles of Jesus. There are also images of St. James (Santiago).
In the Museum of Pilgrimage and Santiago, we learn about Santiago the (1) Apostle, (2) Pilgrim, (3) Moor-slayer. Above, St. James, in orange, is show in his typical position at the last supper – seated close to Jesus.
James was present at the “transfiguration” of Jesus (a powerful spiritual experience). He was also among the select group with Jesus during the night in the Garden of Gethsemane, the night of prayer before Jesus was crucified.
This medieval painting shows the Apostle James holding a book and staff, accompanied by the Apostle John. The three most important apostles were Peter (the Rock upon which the church was founded), John (the one Jesus loved), and James — whose actions after the crucifixion are not well-documented. James and John, both fishermen, were brothers.
“Watch the turmoil of beings,
but contemplate their return.”
St. James (right bottom) was thought to have a special role regarding a dying person’s soul. Mother Mary could intercede through her connection with Jesus and God — thwarting the Devil. Mary could be influenced by saints and priests. James conveyed insight to a person about future possible outcomes, something that would allow the person to take action before death. That could make all the difference regarding heaven and hell.
By by the end of the 6th century, stories developed describing St. James as a missionary to Spain. He was said to have gone to the “End of the World” (Finis Terrae), in what is now Northwest Spain. He was thought to have returned to Palestine. The Book of Acts (12:2) states that he was put to death by sword — on orders by Herod Agrippa.
St. James became the first apostle to be martyred in the year 44.
According to one story, his disciples took the body on a small boat back to Spain — the boat was magically carried by the currents — and the body was buried in a secret place. Another story describes angels transporting the body to Spain on a stone boat. In 730, the ancient historian Bede mentioned the transport of the body. There is no evidence of James’ Spanish visit previous to 9th century traditions.
“Each separate being in the universe
returns to the common source.
Returning to the source is serenity.”
In (perhaps), 830, a hermit, Pelayo, heard music and saw mysterious lights which led him to a place — the “field of the star” (which became known as Compostela). Bishop Teodomiro heard about Pelayo’s experience and the Bishop, after fasting and prayer, discovered Christian tombs — three bodies — which fit the idea that this was St. James and his two disciples.
“If you don’t realize the source,
you stumble in confusion and sorrow.”
King Alphonso II accepted the idea that this was the tomb of St. James. He built a small chapel at the site in 834 and declared St. James his patron saint. It was common for authorities to encourage worship at local shrines and to support region-specific cults. The chapel became a pilgrimage destination.
“When you realize where you come from,
you naturally become tolerant,
kindhearted as a grandmother,
dignified as a king.”
Later, King Charlemagne had a dream in which St. James told him to open up pilgrimage routes to the tomb by liberating Moor-held lands. The Moors were a major problem — in 997, Abn Abi Aamir (known as al-Mansur) captured and destroyed the Compostela church but the saint’s relics were not disturbed.
“Immersed in the wonder of the Tao,
you can deal with whatever life brings you,
and when death comes, you are ready.”
News of the destruction of St. James Shrine spread throughout Christiandom and powerful rich supporters provided money to build the cathedral and support pilgrimage routes.
St. James, the Apostle, acquired the characteristics of St. James, the Pilgrim.
In 1236, with the recapture of Córdoba by Fernando III, the bells of the cathedral were returned to the rebuilt cathedral. This began the golden age of Pilgrimage — with Rome, Jerusalem, and Santiago the three main destinations.
Pilgrims devised special songs which were accompanied by the instruments of the era.
A story developed regarding the Battle of Clavijo, in which an image of St. James appeared in the sky and led Christian troops to victory against their Muslim foes. Although no such battle occurred, St. James became Santiago Metamores, St. James, the Moor-slayer. Appeals to him were part of a common battle cry, used by Christians in battle. The Knights of the Order of St. James of Compostela were founded in 1170 to re-conquer Muslim-held areas. The Order became wealthy and powerful.
I listen to the pilgrim music with these people. I do not know which country they come from but they look like pilgrims — they are dressed like pilgrims.
Karen and I walked from Sevilla to Santiago de Compostela, a distance of over 1000 kilometers. We have a sense of unity with other pilgrims. We feel that Europe is far better off being united rather than fighting wars. People benefit when they overlook their differences. Travel helps people understand this.
In the museum, I saw a piece of an ancient Roman wheel, portraying the wheel of fate. St. James became an apostle, pilgrim, and Moor-Slayer — but today he is a unifying element for a secular pilgrimage that hundreds of thousands of Europeans, Australians, and some Americans (north and south) undertake together. I understand that the wheel of fate turns and that sometimes evil, foolish leaders take over.
I know what war is like. The Inner Way is a means for adjusting to this. When a thought emerges, take note, and let it go.
“Immersed in the Tao, you can deal with what life brings.”
In the morning, we take the train to A Coruña.
The practice of meditation may stimulate religious experiences but you should realize that our minds are like a house of mirrors. We bring up visions which can be used for selfish ends and it is difficult to see the difference between light and shadow. The Inner Way involves letting go of all thoughts.
Many blissful experiences are delusional. When the idea for a battle cry arises, let it go. It is best to remain silent.